English Lesson 15 RELATIVE CLAUSES

Clauses with who /that /witch
A clause is a part of a sentence, a Relative clause tells us wich person or thing the speakers means .Give us an extra information about something or someone in the main clause.
The woman who lives close to my company
We use who in a relative clause when we’re talking about people (not things) . We use who instead of he/she /they
The woman she lives close to my company is a dentist
The woman who lives close to my company is a dentist
You can also use that (instead of who )
That woman that lives close to my company is very nice
When we are talking about things , we use that or witch :
Where is the key? It was on the desk
Where is the key ? that/wich / was on the desk?
You cannot use what in sentences like these :
Everything that happened was my fault
What= the things that
What happened was my fault (=the thing that happened)
Sometimes who/that /wich is the object of the verb
The man who I wanted to see was in a meeting
I wanted to see the man
*who = the man= the object
I= subject
When who/that /wich is the object you can leave it out , so you can say :
The man I wanted to see was in a meeting
Have you found the keys you lost? /Have you found the keys that you lost?
Relatives clauses – Whose/whom/where
We use whose in relative clauses instead of his /her/their
We saw Jack. His car had broken down
We saw Jack whose car had broken down
We use whose mostly for people :
A week ago I met in supermarket someone whose sister I went to school with (I went to school with his/her sister)
I met a girl who knows you (she knows you )
I met a girl whose father knows you (her father knows you )
Whom is possible instead of who when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause
The man whom I wanted to see was in a meeting (I wanted to see him)
You can also use whom with a preposition (to whom/from whom/with whom, etc)
The woman witch whom he shared his life together, left him after ten years
But we don’t often use whom. In spoken English we usually prefer who or that, or nothing. So we usually say:
The man I saw / the man that/who I saw …
You can use where in a relative clause to talk about a place
The hotel we stayed there wasn’t very clean
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean
We say: the day/the year/ the time, etc -that something happens /something happens
Do you still remember the day (that) we first met?
The last time (that) I talked with her, she looked very well
I haven’t seen him since the year (that) he got married
we say: the reason -something happens/that/Why something happens
The reason I’m phoning you is to invite you to a party
The reason why/that I’m phoning you is to invite you to a party
Prepositions +whom/wich
In extra information clauses you can use a preposition before whom (for people) and wich (for things) . So you can say:
to whom/with hom/about witch/for witch/, etc.
Fortunately we bought the the map in the bookstore, without wich we would have got lost in the midle of the city
In spoken English we often keep the preposition after the verb in the relative clause. When we do this, we normally use who (not whom) for people
Yesterday we visited Anna Frank’s Museum wich I ‘d never been to before.
All of /most of etc+ whom/which
John has two children. All of them go to school
John has two children, all of whom go to school
In the same way we can say
none of/neither of/any of/either of
some of/many of / much of/(a) few of +whom (people)/+wich(things)
both of/half of/ each of/ one of/ two of, etc
Two woman, neither of whom I had ever been before came into my class
Roser has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with
A) Definiting relative clauses :
Contain information wich is essential for our understandig of the whole sentence.
The man who normally comes to clean our windows is on holiday this month
Hes’ got a book wich you can find all kind of information you need
In each case, the relative clause indentifies wich person or thing is being talked about
Features of defining relative clauses
· No commas are required either at the beginning or the end on the relative clause
· That can be used instead of who for people and which for things
· The relative pronoum can be omited if it is the object of the verb in the relative clause.
· The relative pronoum cannot be omitted if it is the subject of the verb in the relative clause
B) Non-defining relative clauses
Non-defining relative clauses contain information witch is not essential to understand our sentence, you don’t need to use it.
Our new apartment , wich have a big garden with lots of flowers and trees, is smaller than the apartment we had before.
Features of non-defining relative clauses
· Commas are requiered both at the beginning oand the of the relative clauses , except when the end of the relative clause is the end of the sentence
· We don’t use That in place of who or wich
· Relative pronouns cannot be omitted from nond defining relative clauses
· Non-defining relative clauses are more usual in written
C) Relative clauses and prepositions
1) Prepositions usually come at the end of defining and non-defining relative clauses.
In defining relative clauses the relative pronoum is usually omitted.
The house I grew up in has changed a lot since I left
In non definining relative clauses the relative pronoum is never omitted.
John’s sister , who I used to go school with, lives in Rome
2) In more formal English , prepositions often come more before the relative pronoums whom for people and wich for thing.
We shall be visiting house in wich Rembrandt lived all his years in Amsterdam
The head waiter, to whom we addressed our complaint, was not particulary helpful
D) Relative adverbs: where, when and why
Where , when and why can be used in relative clauses after nouns wich refer to a place , a time or a reason.
Where has the meaning in /at wich
Defining : They’ve booked a car in that distributor that we had bought our first motorbike.
Non-defining : She is Italy, where you spent the last holidays with your friends.
When has the meaning on / in wich and can be omitted in defining relative clauses.
Defining: Do you remember that day (when) we went to drink a coffee in Plaça Catalunya and it began to rain a lot?
Non-defining: I’m going on holiday in December when all the cities begin to put lights for Christmas.
Why has the meaning “for wich” and can be omitted in a defining relative clauses.
Defining : The reason (why) I’m phoning is to ask you when the english class will begin .
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