English Lesson 18 Adverbs 1 (Zarflar)

Adverbs are an important way of adding information to a sentence and of modifying the information that is there .
Adverbs can be single words or phrases . Adverbs formed from adjectives often end in -ly , but there’re many adverbs that not end in -ly
Adverbs of manner with or without -ly
1.- Althought many adverbs of manner end in -ly , many do not
We went straight home when the film finished
Do you have to drive so fast?
2.- We don’t form adverbs from adjectives wich end in -ly (lively, friendly ).We use in a -ly way .
He was looking at us in a very unfriendly way
3.- Some pairs of adverbs have a different meaning with and without -ly
a) deep/ deeply
Deep is and adverb of manner meaning “going far down or in .
Deeply is often used of emotions , and means intesely .
b) Free/ freely
These are both adverbs of manner, but free means without paying and freely means without restriction
c) Hard/hardly
Hard is and adverb of manner. Hardly occurs in the mid -position and means almost not.
She works hard (she works a lot)
Shea hardly works (she does almost not work)
d) Late/lately
Late is and adverb of manner . Lately is and adverb of time meaning recently
Do you often go out late?
Have you been going out a lot lately?
e) right , rightly , wrong , wrongly
Right means in the correct way . Rightly is a comment adverb, expressing the speaker’s idea that someone was entitled to do or feel something.
Wrong/wrongly work in the same way
I’m sure I ‘ll get it right (wrong) next time
Quiet rightly (wrongly) in my view ,they will go to doctor for another point of view.
Position of adverbs :
There are three main positions for adverbs wich modify a verb :
Front position=before the subject
Finally he could stand the noise no longer.
Mid position=beteween the subject and verb, or inmediately after be as a main verb
He usually plays better than this.
She’s usually here by 12.00.
End position=after the verb
I’ve been waiting for hours.
Most types of verb can go in fron position :
Type of verb
Connecting adverbs:
as result, similary
To make inmediately clear the logical relation to the previous sentence
All people in class failed the exam. As a result the theacher made another exam.
Time and place adverbs:
Tomorrow, in the kitchen
To show a contrast with or expansion on previous reference to time or place
The last week have been cold. Tomorrow the wether will be much cooler.
Comment and viewpoint adverbs:
Presumably, financially
To highlight the speaker’s attitude to what they are about say
She has just heard that her sister is in the hospital.Presumably she will visit her.
If the verb is two or more words : can remember, doesn’t smoke, etc, the adverb goes after the first verb (can, doesn’t, etc)
I can never remember his name
Your car has probably been stolen
She doesn’t usually smoke when she is eating
Probably goes before the negative:
I probably won’t see you ,or I will probably not see you
We use also all and both in these positions:
We all felt ill after the meal
My parents are both doctors
Sometimes we use is/ will/did, etc, instead of repeating part of a sentence.
He always says he won’t be late but he always is (he is always late)
He normally put always/never, etc, before the verb in sentences like these.
The following types of adverb usually go in mid position:
adverbs of indefinite frequency: always, never, usually
He always sings when he’s having a shower.
degree adverbs : completely, quite,
focus adverbs just, even
I completely forgot her birthday, and I just don’t know how to make it up to her.
Most adverbs of time or place don’t go in this position:
•Jane had a baby in October, (not Jane in October had a baby)
However, a few often do, including already, finally, now, recently, soon, still:
I finally met Roy at the conference in Madrid.
and in journalism, other adverbs of time are often used in mid position:
The government yesterday announced an increase in education spending.
In mid position, we put adverbs where we would put not, or after it if not is already there:
Sue’s never at home these days, I don’t fully understand.
End position, we usually put an adverb after an object or complement if there is one:
He studied the problem briefly, (not He studied briefly the problem.)
However, if an object or complement is very long, then we often put an adverb between the verb and its object or complement. This is particularly common in journalism:
We considered briefly the long-term solution to the problem.
When there is more than one adverb in end position, the usual order in written English is adverb of manner (= saying how something is done), place, and then time:
In the accident she was thrown violently against the door. (= manner + place)
However, if one adverb is much longer than another then it is usually placed last:
They left at 3.00 with a great deal of noise. (= time + manner)
Already: Usually occurs in the mid position, but it can be found at the begining or end of a clause.
Still: Usually occurs in the mid position
My mother’s still being prescribed antibiotics
At the begining of a sentence , still is often used as a discourse marker to indicate a contrast with what has gone before
He’s a miserable old guy, Still you have got to admire him
With questions and negatives yet usually occurs at the end of the sentence/clause.
John hasn’t arrived yet . Would you mind waiting for a few moments?
We can use yet+infinitive with to in a more formal context in affirmative sentences
Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place usually go in end position, but we can put them in front position to show a contrast or expansion . This order is found mainly in d e s c r i p t i v e writing and reports.
The money was eventually found under the floorboards. (= end) and
The police searched the house and under the floorboards they found a body. (= front)
If we put an adverb of place in front position we have to put the subject after the verb be:
Next to the bookshelf was a fireplace
We can also do this with intransitive verbs used to indicate position or movement to a position,including hang, lie, live, sit, stand; come, fly, go, march, roll, run, swim, walk:
Beyond the houses lay open fields, (rather than …open fields lay.)
Through the town square marched the band, [rather than …the band marched.)
However, we don’t do this if one of these intransitive verbs is followed by an adverb of manner,with other intransitive verbs, or with transitive verbs:
Outside the church the choir sang
In the garden John built a play house for the children
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