When we talk about something that happen in the past , but we don’t specify exactly when it happened , we use present perfect
When we use the present perfect, it suggests some kind of connection between what happened in the past, and the present time. Often we are interested in the way that something that happened in the past affects the situation that exists now:
I’ve washed my hands so that I can help you with the cooking.
The connection with the present may also be that something happened recently, with a consequence for the present:
I’ve found the book I was looking for. So, I can study now
When we talk about how long an existing situation has lasted, even if we don’t give a precise length of time, we use the present perfect
We’ve recently started to walk to work instead of taking the bus.
Present events :
without a definite time given, sometimes is indicate by the word Just
I’ve just opened the door
Indefinite events: wich happened at an unknown time in the past
John has been three wifes (until this moment)
We often use the present perfect to say that an action or event has been repeated a number of times up to now .
They have been to Istanbul more than four times
Indefinite events that have a result in the present
I have failed the exams (thats why I have to study more now )
A habitual action in a period of time up to the present
I’ve been walking every day until my company for the last month
Times expressions with present perfect :
Present perfect with indefinite time expressions meaning “up to now” :
Since 1990, already
Many times expressions are not associated with a specific verb form ,since they refer both to finished time or up to present , depending on the speaker
I saw the movie recently
I have seen the movie recently
for, never, before, all my life, for a long time, today, all day, every day
These may be used with either past simple or present perfect
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST
The present perfect is a present tense. It always tells us something about now .
Jennifer has lost her wallet” (she doesn’t have her wallet now)
The past simple tells us only about the past.
“Jennifer lost her wallet”, in this case we don’t know when she lost the wallet now, or time ago.
Don’t use the present perfect if there is no connection with the present.
Columbus discovered America (not Columbus have discovered America)
Shakespeare was a great writter (not Shakespeare has been a great writter)
We use present perfect to give new information . But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple.
Don’t use the present perfect when we talk about a finished time, for example, yesterday/in 1996/ five minutes ago/when I was younger, etc. Use a past tense.
The party was nice yesterday
I arrived at home five minutes ago
I read lots of books when I was younger
Did you listen the radio last night?
Use a past tense to ask when ? or what time ?
When did you say that John arrived?
What time did you finish homework?
Some time adverbs that connect the past to the present are often used with the present perfect:
Don’t disturb John . He’s just gone to study the lesson.
Other time adverbs like this include already, since (last weekend), so far, still, up to now, yet.
When we use time adverbs that talk about finished periods of time we use the past simple rather than the present perfect:
John had the traffic accident, at the age of 47, in 2001. (notJohn has had…)
Other time adverbs like this include (a month) ago, at (3 o’clock), last (week, month), on(Sunday), once (= at some time in the past), then, yesterday.
We often use before, for, and recently with the present perfect and also the past simple.
…with present perfect
nothing like this has happened before.
A new cinemal has recently opened in Barcelona close to my area
…with past simple
Why didn’t you ask me before?
We had the house for five months
Time adverbs that refer to the present, such as today, this morning/week/month, can also be used with either the present perfect or past simple. If we see today etc. as a past, completed period of time, then we use the past simple; if we see today, etc. as a period including the present moment,then we use the present perfect.
I didn’t shave today (= the usual time has passed; suggests I will not shave today) and
I haven’t shaved today. (= today is not finished; I may shave later or may not)
We use since to talk about a period that started at some point in the past and continues until the present time. This is why we often use since with the present perfect:
Since 2002 I have worked in a international company in Barcelona
I haven’t been able to play piano since I selt my piano
We use the present perfect with ever and never to emphasise that we are talking about the whole
of a period of time up until the present:
It’s one of the most great castles I have ever seen. (= in my whole life)
I’ve never had any problems with the washing machine (= at any time since I bought it)
We use the past simple with ever and never to talk about a completed period in the past:
When he was young, he never bothered too much about his appearance.
Choice between present perfect and past simple for recent events may depen on the attitude of the speaker
When we report that someone has recently invented, produced, discovered or written something we use the present perfect. When we talk about something that was invented, etc. in the more distant past we use the past simple.
It is often said that Americo Vespuccio ‘discovered’ .America
Chinese craftsmen invented both paper and printing.
Sometimes it makes very little difference to the main sense of
Present perfect continuous , can refer to a range of meanings depending on the time expression used and the context
A state wich last up to the present moment :
I’ve been listening you one hour!
A non-finish activity
I ‘ve been cooking all morning but I still haven’t finished
To emphasise duration
I’ve been writting letters all morning
A recently finished activity
I’ve been talking with my teacher. That’s why I seems nervous
A repeated activity
I have been learning turkish lesson this year.