1. about ve on
We can use about and on to mean ‘concerning’: We use on in a formal way, to describe a text book, for example:
This is a textbook on English Grammar.
about is informal:
I need a book about Antalya.
2. according to ve by
We use according to to refer to information coming from other people or
According to this book, we can say that Africa is …
According to him …
But when we refer to ourselves, we say in my opinion (not ‘according to me’)
We can use by or according to when we refer to a clock or a timetable:
By or according to my watch, it is 2.30.
3. accross ve over
We can use both these prepositions to mean ‘from one side to the other’:
My office is across/over the road/river.
We cannot use over for large areas:
They are laying a pipeline across Southestearn Turkey. (not ‘over’)
We use over after verbs like wander to mean ‘here and there’. We use across to describe movement through water:
He swam across the Mediterranean. ( not ‘over the Mediterranean’)
But we say ‘over a wall’ or ’fence’. (not ‘across’)
4. across ve through
through, meaning ‘from one side to the other’, refers to something like a
We crawled through a pipe to get to the hidden room of the kids.
or something dense:
They walked through the forest with difficulty and reached the campsite.
across refers to a large area:
They flew across the desert.
With some nouns, like park, we can use either across or through.
5. after ve afterwards
We generally use a noun or pronoun with after:
I will meet you after breakfast.
We use afterwards to mean ‘at a later or subsequent time’:
We had a large breakfast in the morning. Afterwards we lay on the beach.
6. around ve about
We use both words to refer to ‘lack of purpose’:
He never has anyhting to do, so he always fools around/about.
But we say ‘He lives around here. (not ‘about here’)
7. at, to ve against
We use at after adjctives like, good, clever. After verbs like throw, at often means ‘taking aim’.
He threw the ball at John. (in order to hit John)
He threw the ball to John. (for John to catch)
When there is no idea of ‘taking aim’, we use against:
He threw the ball against the ball.
They are fighting against the terrorists.
We use at for speed or price:
He was driving at 120 km an hour when he hit the tree.
We bought the books at $7 each.
away combines with far (far away) and from (away from) and with verbs
which give the idea of ‘distance’: e.g. live, work:
She lives 10 miles away. (not ‘lives 10 miles far away’)
9. because ve because of
We use because to give a reason:
We left the party because it was noisy.
We use a noun or pronoun after because:
We left the party because of the noise.
10. before ya da in front of
We often use before to refer to time:
You should be there before 5 p.m.
in front of (and its opposite behind) often refers to position:
I will be waiting for you in front of the Watc Tower.
But before is sometimes used to refer to position with a similar meaning with in front of:
He was humiliated before the public (or ‘in front of the public’)
behind can also be used to refer to time when someone/something is late:
We are two days behind the schedule. We should work faster.
11. behind, at the back (of) ve back
We can put a noun or pronoun after behind (behind the mountains) or we can use it on its own (there is a park behind). Or we can say: at the back of this house, it is at the back.
Do not confuse back with again:
We should invite them back, means ‘return their hospitality’.
Don’t use back after return. We returned early. (not returned back)
It was 2 years back (=ago)
12. beside ve besides
beside + noun/pronoun means ‘next to’:
He sat beside me. (= he sat next to me)
besides with or without an object means ‘in addition to’ or ‘as well as’:
There were many other candidates besides (us).
There are three elm trees and two maples besides.
Besides, I promised her we would come.
13. between ve among
We commonly use between to show a division between two people, things, or times:
He couldn”t see the difference between good and bad.
We”ll keep this matter between the two of us.
We use among + plural noun to refer to a mass of people, things, etc.:
He was among friends.
That is among the things we must do.
Note: We sometimes use between to refer to more than two, if these can be viewed seperately:
We are sharing the responsibilities between the five of us.
14. but (for) ve except (for)
but (for)/except (for) mean ‘with the exception of’:
Everyone in the room applauded but (for)/except (for) you.
We can use except and but without for, but not to begin a sentence:
Except for / But for you, everyone has come to the meeting. (not Except you/But you everyone …)
expect for/but for can mean ‘if not’:
I would have been on time except for/but for the heavy traffic.
15. by, near ve on
by can mean ‘right next to’:
Come and sit by me.
We often use the words right or close in front of by:
The library is right by/close by the post office.
near or not far from usually suggests ‘a short way from’:
She lives near/not far from Glasgow.
on means ‘right next to’ or ‘beside’ when we refer to ‘a line’:
Their house is right on the road.
Can’t you see what’s on your right?
16. by ve past
We use either word after verbs of motion (go, run, walk, etc.) to mean ‘beyond
in space or time’:
She went right by/past me without speaking.
A few weeks went by/past.
17. due to ve owing to
We often use either one or the other. However, due to is related to a noun +
The delay (noun) was (+be) due to/caused by the heavy fog.
owing to (=because of) is related to the verb:
The match was cancelled (verb) owing to/because of the heavy snow.
1. about ve on