Find the sentence for the blank that covers the meaning
1- Though generally marked by brief attention periods, nearly all 5-8 year old boys love to fish. Considering the quiet patience successful fishing demands, this is a stunning phenomenon. ………… But, unfortunately, this restrained anticipation is not always rewarded with a catch.
A)Fishing is a popular sport because anyone can engage in it, regardless of age, sex or income
B)Not every boy, of course, will fit the pattern – some may quickly get bored with the activity
C)Perhaps it is the constant possibility of catching something which keeps them interested
D)The term still fishing refers to the technique of catching fish without moving from one spot
E)The fisherman must always be prepared to leap from his quiet waiting into action
2-……………. . We know, for example, that at noon in New York, it will always be five in the afternoon in London. But this is actually a recent development, only 150 years ago, every town and hamlet set their own clocks: judging noon by the local apex of the sun’s daily climb. It was the arrival of the railroad which made a coordinated system necessary, as a time difference of only a few minutes between cities might cause a collision.
A)It is not always easy to keep track of the time in this global economy
B)The world is divided into 24 time zones, and the width of each is about 15 degrees longitude
C)Without accurate time keeping, there could be no modern world
D)The railroad brought many more changes than just faster transportation
E)Today almost all of us are aware of the worldwide system of time zones
3-…………. . Because of this lack of foresight, there will be huge problems after the last day of the year 1999 if no solutions have been found by then. Many computers will be unable to interpret dates past that date. For example, the year 2000, shown as “00,” will be read as 1900.
A)To save memory, computer programmers originally represented years by the last two digits
B)For all their apparent complexity, digital computers are basically simple machines
C)The cost of fixing the world’s computers in time for the millennium may approach $1 trillion
D)Programs, also called software, are detailed sequences of instructions directing the computer hardware to perform operations
E)Programmers are hard at work fixing the so-called “millennium bug” before it causes damage
4- ……… : “four bedrooms”; “lots of storage space”; “close to my work”; “low rent”; “a quiet neighbourhood”; “a big yard”; “a scenic view”; and so on. This is because to most people, housing quality obviously means more than simply shelter.
A)Many people prefer to have the front door open into an entrance hallway
B)Up to the 1930s, it was considered essential to have a separate dining room in a house
C)When people are asked what kind of housing they want, the question evokes a variety of answers
D)A vital feature of any house is its accessibility to the occupant’s place of work, to stores and schools
E)The quality of housing available to an individual, a couple or a larger family ultimately depends on their Income
5- The first practical photographic process that produced lasting pictures was invented by Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre, a French painter and physicist. For his invention, he was appointed an officer of the Legion of Honor, and the French government published his process and granted him 6.000 francs annually. …………., and were among the earliest photographic portraits.
A)George Eastman was another pioneer in the field of photography
B)He used this method to take many photographs of his wife
C)He took pictures of many of the most famous people in France
D)Prints made by this process were known as daguerreotypes
E)The process has not been used for well over one hundred years, however
6-Teaching children to swim at an early age is not only something the kids will enjoy, but vital to their general safety. With so many backyard swimming pools, rivers and reservoirs scattered about urban areas, the chances a child may accidentally fall into a body of water are high …….. .
A)Thus, it’s best to prepare for such an event by making sure your child will have the skills to save himself
B)These are all good places to have a swim, so it is important that children learn how and enjoy the opportunities
C)Even people who know how to swim can be at risk of drowning
D)A good swimmer will be able to avoid such accidents
E)These situations, however, are usually not dangerous: In fact. They can be funny
7- While the invention of e-mail certainly has many advantages, the world surely miss the pleasure of old fashioned letters in the mail. A hand written letter has a personal touch an electronic message could never achieve. Each personal letter is unique: the paper, the handwriting, the stamps. And, when they arrive, it’s as though they have a history. …….. . But e-mails lack this. They don’t feel as though they have travelled anywhere. They just appear as if they’ve come out of thin air.
A)Computers are used daily by many individuals for the main purposes of sending and receiving e-mail
B)A posted letter feels like a real, physical connection between the sender and receiver
C)The older a posted letter is, the more precious it becomes
D)It takes posted letters longer to arrive, but it is most definitely worth the wait
E)You know a posted letter has made a long, and perhaps eventful, journey to your door
8- In human beings, instinct reveals itself in such things as self-protection in the face of attack. ………. . They, for instance, build their nests entirely by instinct. More dramatic, perhaps, is the instinct that compels many species of bird to migrate. How this process works remains a mystery.
A)The eagle is known to have a sharp sense of instinct
B)In other animals, however, instinct plays a much larger role, as in the case of birds
C)Instinct requires no instruction, and even the smallest animal is instinctive
D)Birds, insects, mammals – all animal life forms rely on their instinct.
E)This is an inherited form of behaviour, common to all forms of animal
9- The mosquito is an insect belonging to the fly family and found in most parts of the world. Its eggs are laid and hatched in stagnant water. ……… . Likewise, another type is responsible for yellow fever.
A)The eggs are often laid in swamps or marshes
B)Like many insects, they can transmit diseases
C)One species of tropical mosquito transmits malaria
D)Mosquitoes should be controlled to prevent disease
E)Mosquito-transmitted diseases differ in their geographic distribution, specific causes and effects
10- ………. .Figure skating includes jumps and spins performed to music and the free skating event allows freedom of expression and interpretation. Speed skating involves races of various distances from 500 m to 10.000 m. Ice skating is also included in the Winter Olympics.
A)The Winter Olympics are held every four years and include a variety of events
B)People can enjoy many different types of winter sports, from skiing to skating
C)Ordinary people may think it extremely difficult to perform all those figures on ice
D)There are two kinds of competitive ice-skating: figure skating and speed skating
E)Skaters who have previously studied dance find that it helps them enormously
11-Fear of the number 13 has long been a superstition. Its roots are religious. At the Last Supper of Jesus and his disciples, there were 13 persons, one of whom was Judas, the traitor. Today many tall buildings omit a numbered 13th floor, skipping instead from 12 to 14, …………Nevertheless, the trick seems to be enough to reassure people that they are safe from bad luck.
A) Avoidance of black cats has religious origins as well
B)This does not make any difference for the blind, though
C) Seeing a black cat is also believed to bring bad luck
D) In such buildings, accidents and have been shown to be less frequent
E) This practice obviously can’t really eliminate the thirteenth floor
12- Lightships are aids to navigation, similar in function to lighthouses. They came into use in the 17th century in places where it was not practical to build a lighthouse. Modern lightships are steel vessels about 35 metres long ………… . Some lightships, however, those equipped with automatic devices, require no full time crew on board.
A)They are most suitable for sheltered waters where high-powered illumination is not necessary
B)Usually they are manned by a crew of about seven, and carry all the equipment standard to a lighthouse
C)Because lightships are often located in remote places, the power used to operate them is usually derived from diesel generators
D)To increase light intensity and focus it into a beam, mirrors and other reflectors came into use in the 18th century
E)Modern lighthouses have reflectors, as well as lenses and prisms, to carry the light farther
13-People of all ages in nearly every country where there is mountainous terrain enjoy the unique appeal of skiing. It is one of the few sports that enable people to move at high rates of speed without any power-producing device. ………………With the world’s top athletes reaching speeds over 80 mph in the downhill, it is no wonder serious injuries are common.
A)Yet female skiers are actually less liable to injury than males, although they get hurt occasionally
B)Actually, it is rather miraculous that fatal injuries are extremely rare
C)In its simplest form, skiing is sliding down a snow-covered slope on a Pair of long, slim runners called skis
D)However, it can be a very dangerous sport, particularly at the professional level
E)Just recently American skier Peekabo Street suffered a broken leg during a competition
14-In recent years, “supermarkets” and the even larger “hypermarkets” have spread across the landscape……….. . Not everyone agrees, though, that they are a good thing. Those who object to these vast stores point to increased traffic caused not only by delivery trucks but also by cars travelling to them. They are also blamed for the destruction of local business and the resulting decline in town centres.
A)They are extremely inconvenient for people who do not have cars
B)As competition has become keener, supermarkets have added specialty shops, like small bakeries into their stores
C)Everything today seems to be called “super-“, so the word is losing any real meaning
D)A variation on the supermarket is the box store, which sells products directly out of cartons
E)They are popular because they provide a great variety of products, and are generally cheaper than traditional shops
15- In the bronze age, the time of the Trojan Wars, ships seldom ventured out of sight of land because they had large crews to man the oars, and little space for provisions or sleeping. Nor were they able to withstand heavy weather, and their captains did not know how to find their way without landmarks to guide them. ………….. . Thus, the crew would cook, eat and sleep ashore.
A) The Polynesians were far ahead of the Europeans, being able to find their way guided by the stars
B) Occasionally a storm would take them far from land, and then, it was regarded as a disaster
C) For these reasons, they had to stop in a harbour very frequently
D) This means that they were often able to cover huge distances in a short time
E) However, because they had oars, they could still progress in light or strong winds
16-Typing is the most basic skill of the information-based economy. Those with typing skills, which can be acquired through a relatively basic course, are virtually assured of employment, though the pay may be low. ……….. . This, obviously, requires more extensive education.
A) The newest printing method in the industry is computerised, or electronic, printing
B) Combined with knowledge of computer programs, good typing skills can get one a high paying job
C) The electronic typewriter is similar in appearance to the manual machines
D) Typing can also be very useful in your personal life, helping with letters and reports
E) Yet many people may think that a low paying job is better than being unemployed
17-In recent years there has been a lot of discussion about how to improve the American educational system, because the shocking fact is that many young Americans leave schools even without the ability to read or write. One idea has been to try to copy from Japan, where students always score highly on inter——– tests. ……… . Traditionally, for example, Japanese respect their teachers greatly, whereas in the United States, teachers are not highly regarded.
A) If this works, it could save money as well, since class sizes are much larger in Japan
B) Yet, this idea ignores the simple fact that the Japanese educational success is largely based on cultural standards
C) Parts of Britain, especially the inner city areas, have also experienced a decline in educational standards
D) One flaw in this argument is that Japan is a largely homogeneous society, while the United States is increasingly multi-cultural
E) Perhaps it is simply because the Japanese language is so difficult to read that the students need more self-discipline
18-…………You may feel perfectly fine until it rises to a certain extent. But when your cholesterol sneaks up above a desirable level, you are at risk of having a heart attack, heart disease, or a stroke. what can you do? In fact, once you are aware of the problem, it is quite easy to keep your cholesterol level under control through a carefully followed diet plan.
A)If you eat a lot of fast foods, you can’t say that you are eating healthily
B)Most people choose to eat food for taste rather than for their health
C)Cholesterol testing usually requires no preparation, but sometimes you may have to go hungry beforehand
D)It is not difficult to lose weight provided you apply a little self-discipline
E)A high cholesterol level is something you cannot see or hear
19-Most babies begin to use a few sounds that mean something when they are about a year old. However, there are perfectly normal children who wait months longer. ………. . A friendly, outgoing baby just naturally wants to talk young. The quiet, observer type seems to want to spend a long time just watching the world go by before he or she wants to say anything about it.
A)If a baby doesn’t start talking at about one year old, it is probably not very bright
B)It’s now accepted that foreign languages should be taught to children from the age of five
C)It seems to be largely a matter of character and personality
D)Some children start walking without ever learning to crawl
E)It does not matter because soon they will be talking so much that parents will wish they would be quiet
20-………. The fall of snow in Tokyo provides a good example for this. There, one or two centimetres of snow is enough to shut down the entire city. Yet just a couple of hours away on the other side of the mountains, everyone lives with two or three metres of snow for most of the winter, and life goes on as usual.
A)Many Japanese think theirs is the only country in the world to have four seasons
B)Though most people take their holidays in the summer a lot of people prefer a winter holiday
C)Skiing is now one of the world’s fastest growing sports
D)It is strange the way people have difficulty in coping with what they are not used to
E)Though Tokyo winters are cold, the weather is normally clear and dry
21-Mobile phones are used by one in five people in Britain. They are an accepted part of life in the 1990s. However, mobile phones are now beginning to suffer from an image problem after a series of scare stories linking them with cancer and short-term memory loss. Researchers are rushing to complete studies of the effects of mobiles on human brain tissue . ………… . The truth is that nobody really knows as yet because research has not been completed.
A)They are probably even more popular in the Far East than in Britain and the US.
B)Manufacturers are trying to give their product a more stylish image to detract from the scare stories
C)One wonders how people communicated in the days before the invention of the mobile phone
D)But once’ people have got used to their comfort, it is so difficult to do without them
E)There is now the question of how safe mobile phones are
22-When we look at the night sky. It seems that the planets are always changing their positions while the stars appear to be fixed. ………… . One star, for example, though it actually moves quite fast, would take over two hundred years to move a distance equal to the diameter of the Earth’s moon. It is only when we compare the records ancient peoples kept of the skies with the present day that we can see the stars really do move.
A)Planets also seem to have a steady light, while stars twinkle
B)In fact, stars are always moving, but they are so far away that we cannot see any change in their position
C)Astronomers can only estimate the total number of stars in the universe
D)Distance cannot be learned from a star’s magnitude alone, because its magnitude depends upon its size and brightness as well
E)Talking about star signs is often a good way to begin a conversation with a stranger
23- Several years ago, two British backpackers were among the forty-seven passengers who survived the hijack and crash of a flight from Addis Ababa to Nairobi. They never saw their hijackers, and did not know if they were killed in the crash or were among the survivors. The travellers were both severely injured…………, so they went on from India to Australia, then to South America, as they had initially planned.
A)It would be ironic, of course, if the hijackers turned out to have survived after all
B)They were a little discouraged as they knew that hijacking like this were quite common in the region
C)But the two young women decided to complete their travels once their wounds had healed
D)It was quite a big disaster, though, because there were 127 people on board, of whom only 47 survived
E)This experience alone would have been enough to stop them from travelling further
24-In today’s society, where many occupations do not involve physical activity, staying healthy is often difficult,……. .However, maintaining one’s health is not all that easy. Although health- conscious people may exercise or diet seriously for a certain length of time, many of them lose motivation and stop.
A)Many people suffer from ailments that would have been unknown to our ancestors
B)People who are healthy achieve this in a number of different ways
C)A little common sense seems to be all that is needed in order to remain healthy
D)Doctors are overwhelmed with people whose complaints they sometimes have trouble taking seriously
E)The effects of stress on the body were hardly acknowledged until quite recently
25-We live in an era when television has become the ——– pastime. Since the invention of the TV, people have been spending more free time watching it than doing anything else. Some TV addicts defend this by claiming that people can learn a great deal from watching TV…….. .They also contend that, with cable and satellite companies increasing their share of the market, it is now a waste of money as well.
A)Until recently we could watch major sporting events free of charge and without the need for special equipment
B)The heavyweight boxing championship is an event that is no longer on live television
C)In fact some of the d6cumentaries and nature programs are very educational
D)Others argue that watching television simply robs people of their valuable time
E)Educational programs are often on at odd hours, so you need a video to record them
26-…… . Of them, a well-trained doctor will select the best that will cure a particular illness of a patient. Sometimes there are some points to consider even within the same method. The use of an antibiotic such as penicillin may be the best treatment for a particular infectious disease, for example, but it would not be the ideal therapy for someone allergic to penicillin. Then he would have to choose another antibiotic to treat the disease.
A) Medicine has changed greatly in the last 100 years
B) Doctors are not equally distributed throughout a country
C) Early medicine did not have the professional status it now does
D) Certain types of laboratory work can be done by medical technicians
E) There are many methods of treating disease
27-A number of farmers and gardeners today have taken up what is called “organic” farming and gardening, which means growing plants and vegetables without using man-made chemicals. A good example of how this works is the use of ladybugs to control aphids,………..By introducing ladybugs into their gardens, however, which love to eat aphids, farmers can get rid of these harmful bugs without causing any harm to the good ones.
A) Another friendly insect, the honeybee, is the most efficient way of spreading pollen
B) Children love to play with ladybugs, and never hurt them
C) People also say that fruit and vegetables grown organically taste better
D) There are many kinds of aphids, but most feed exclusively on a particular crop, weed or tree
E) Using an insecticide would also kill harmless insects alongside them
28-In 1846, an Italian chemist named Asciano Sobrero produced the first nitro-glycerine. When he heated a drop of it, it produced a large explosion. ……. .Of course his noble gesture did no good at all. Other scientists followed up his research, and high explosives were being used in warfare by the end of the 19th century.
A)He immediately realised that this chemical could be used to produce weapons of mass destruction and stopped his research
B)Realising its potential for warfare, he was intelligent enough to make a fortune from it
C)His research into how to produce this chemical in large quantities makes him one of history’s most evil scientists
D)It is dreadful to think that about 100 gallons of gas are produced by only one ounce of nitro-glycerine
E)This, of course, was nothing compared to the explosives that would be developed in the 20th century
29-If we think of the Neanderthal man at all, we tend to think of an ape-like creature, ugly and low in intelligence. In fact this distant ancestor of ours was more intelligent and accomplished than is generally acknowledged. He made tools such as stone knives, flint balls and scrapers that were not only useful, but also beautiful. It was also the Neanderthal man who first developed the use of mineral colours, the first sign of mankind’s inherent artistic sense. …………This suggests that there were the beginnings of a complex religious system.
A)Some of their paintings were scenes of hunting and other aspects of daily life
B)Remains of these early humans were first found in 1856 in the Neander Valley in Germany
C)These factors point out Just how ski fled materially this underrated ancestor of ours actually was
D)Neanderthal settlements continued to exist side by side with later groups such as the Cro-magnon man
E)Perhaps most surprising Is the ceremonial way In which the dead were buried
30-…….. because, after centuries of scientific stagnation, there were suddenly a number of new inventions and discoveries. It was early in the century, for example, that Galileo perfected the telescope and reported on his observations of the heavenly bodies. Still early in the century, William Harvey discovered the way in which blood circulates in humans and other animals. But possibly the greatest scientist of the century was Isaac Newton, who discovered the laws of gravity and those governing physics and light.
A) It is impossible to imagine astronomy without the telescope
B) The individual inventive effort of past years is now largely replaced by organised research
C) It was not until the invention of the steam engine that Industrial Revolution became a real possibility
D) For the scientist, seventeenth century Europe must have been an exciting time and place
E) Many of the “discoveries” that the West took credit for had long been known to the Arabs
31-In most traditional societies, nothing goes to waste. For example, some nomadic societies live almost entirely on the products of their animals. They burn the dried dung for fuel, drink the milk, clothe themselves in the hides and furs, and eat the meat. …………… . One of the more shocking statistics is that every five years, the average westerner throws away an amount of waste equal to the weight of the Statue of Liberty.
A)Some extreme environmentalists feel that we should all go back to living in that way
B)By contrast, in western consumer-oriented societies, sometimes more is thrown away than is used
C)Furthermore, since they are always on the move, they are careful not to over-use the land
D)In spite of this way of life that is in harmony with nature, nomads are being forced to settle down in many countries
E)On the other hand, most of today’s societies manufacture almost everything they use
32-…………..for his father spoke only English, Gaelic was James’s mother tongue. English always felt flat and harsh, like daylight after night-fishing, but his mother made sure he was as proficient as a little prince, for they were part of the British Empire and he had his way to make.
A)Like his father, James spoke a number of languages, including Gaelic and French
B)It used to make his father angry when James and his mother spoke Gaelic together
C)When it came to the ability for speaking languages, James took after his father
D)In colonial Nova Scotia, which was settled by Scots, Gaelic was the local language
E)When James was angry at his mother, he used to speak in Gaelic to his father
33-The social scientist Talcott Parsons developed the “Role-Model Theory”, which meant a boy would follow his father for his role model, while a girl would follow her mother. It soon became apparent, however, that this theory was inadequate. In the 1970s, for example, when young girls whose mothers were doctors were surveyed, they would often declare that doctors were boys and nurses were girls. ………… .These examples showed that most children looked outside the home for their role models.
A)On the other hand, most radical feminists seemed to have mothers who were housewives
B)Often such outrageous figures as Madonna become role models
C)Socially most people are members of a group they perceive as “family”
D)Children inherit two separate bloodlines at birth- the mother’s and the father’s
E)In contrast, all boys wanted to be just like their fathers
34-As far as mankind is concerned, the zebra is one of the most useless animals in existence. ………. . Though they run wild and have much the same diet as edible animals like the eland and gazelle, their meat tastes too awful to be eaten. Though their stripped hide is beautiful to look at, it is not strong or durable enough to be put to any use.
A) While the zebra lives in Africa, there is a similar animal, in the Tibetan Plateau
B) Horses, on the other hand, have been domesticated since before recorded history
C) They are shaped like donkeys, but refuse to be trained, and simply will not work
D) Since all zoos have zebras, everyone knows what they look like
E) Even so, they are a big tourist attraction in the game parks of Africa
35-Cocoa is a product of Theobroma cacao, a small tree originally found in tropical America. It flowers directly from the trunk and branches, and has fruits containing 40-60 seeds. …………. . At the end of all these processes, raw or bitter chocolate is produced.
A)These seeds are the raw material from which chocolate is made
B)The ripe seeds are fermented, dried, roasted and ground to a paste
C)About 1 million tons of cocoa a year is produced in Africa and Brazil
D)In the 1800s, eating chocolate and powdered cocoa were developed
E)To make chocolate, cocoa butter has to be added to balance the sugar
36-…………. . It affects eight percent of men and one in two hundred and fifty women. It is particularly troublesome when individuals cannot distinguish between red and green – the colours of traffic lights.
A)Acute alcoholism is a serious problem in the northern part of Australia
B)The origins of the colours used in traffic signals is difficult to trace
C)While some people think green is a beautiful colour, others prefer red
D)Colour blindness is an inherited condition affecting the ability to see colours
E)Persistent headaches and blurred vision are symptoms that may indicate serious eye disorders
37- ……… . Both are derived from the Greek term for city-state and have to do with the administration and oversight of communities of people. Police operations vary from nation to nation. In some states, police forces arc highly militarised and nearly indistinguishable from the armed forces.
A)The words ‘police’ and ‘politics’ are related
B)Police forces are part of the criminal justice system
C)Interpol has caught thousands of inter——– criminals
D)Many of the regulatory powers of government involve some kind of policing activity
E)Many countries have centralised, or ——–, police organisations
38-Janissaries were the elite troops of the Ottoman Army and were founded in the 14th century. ………. . From the 17th century onward, however, Muslims were recruited as well, and they became a powerful and influential force in the empire until they were massacred by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826.
A)The strong Islamic beliefs of the troops made them a powerful army
B)In the early 19th century, they tried to overthrow the reigning Sultan
C)The boys were chosen at a young age and taken away from their families
D)They lived in a special barracks inside’ the walls of Topkapi Palace
E)Originally, they were recruited from Christian boys and captives of war
39-The Kani people belong to one of the poorest tribes in the southern Indian state of Kerala. These rain-forest dwellers live in fragile shacks. Each night they sleep with the fear that a passing herd of wild elephants could trample them to death. …………. . They believe that they are the descendants of the chief physician of the gods, and that his wisdom of healing has been passed down to them through the ages.
A)Elephants are not normally dangerous animals unless provoked
B)But even in poverty, the Kanis have not forgotten their mythical past
C)India has many such tribes with no traditions or even oral history
D)As you can imagine, this makes it hard to get a good night’s sleep
E)It is interesting that, though largely Christian, Kerala had the world’s first elected Communist government
40-…………. . By translating the results of scientific, experiments into mathematical terms, it is possible to develop assumptions and formulae for general application. Further experimentation is often suggested in this process. In this way, mathematics clarifies and furthers knowledge of the physical world.
A)The introduction of the decimal system into Europe greatly advanced the field of mathematics
B)Mathematics has become an essential tool in all sciences for the development of theory
C)Mathematics is the study of numbers and their logical relationships with each other
D)Though interesting in its own right, mathematics has few uses outside the realm of accounting
E)Arithmetic is the most ancient form of mathematics, and was known to the Egyptians
41-An overweight person beyond the age of forty, who has a family history of diabetes, fails in the high-risk category for contracting this disease. ………. . When both parents are diabetic, however, the risk is even higher, and some authorities believe all such children will be diabetic.
A)Diabetes may occur in a child under the age of ten, but most develop it at a later age
B)Diabetes occurs during the lifetime of 4 percent of women and 2 percent of men
C)Diabetes is diagnosed with a glucose-tolerance test
D)The correct diet is essential for all people with diabetes
E)A child born to one diabetic parent has a one-in-four chance of becoming diabetic
42-There is no trace of the violent event that happened on that cold winter’s night over six months ago, as the meteorite came thundering down through the heavens. But then again, this place seems to be able to withstand a nuclear blast without any damage. …………, but we are determined to find it because we know it lies somewhere upon this great glacier of central Greenland.
A)The large, dense objects that survive the fall to the Earth are called meteorites
B)Greenland is subject to intense cold and terrible blizzards
C)A meteorite fr6m Mars that fell to the Earth 13,000 years ago was found in Antarctica
D)Glaciers flow from Greenland’s icy mountains and discharge a billion tons of ice into the sea every year
E)The remnants of the meteorite could be hiding anywhere in this endless sea of ice and snow
43-…………… . The letters have no meaning, but in Morse code the combination has a pronounced rhythm which attracts immediate attention. All ships observe two silence periods every hour, listening on certain frequencies to ensure that any distress signal, however weak, will be picked up.
A)Letters were sent between various naval bodies on the subject of safety
B) S.O.S. is the inter——– distress call for use in wireless telegraphy
C)The word ‘Mayday,’ is derived from the French and means ‘Help me’
D)Distress signals are sent on 500-metre or 2000-metre wavelength
E)Sailors of all ——–ities agree they will help anyone in trouble at sea
44-It is ironic that the great nuclear powers of the world, the United States and Russia, have made themselves crusaders against the further expansion of nuclear weaponry. They’ve already got the power, so naturally they have no interest in sharing their nuclear technology with other nations. ………. . Therefore, though their efforts are self-serving and thus do not deserve praise, in practice they must be supported.
A)However, the great powers themselves have taken significant steps towards reducing the nuclear threat
B)The real nuclear threat comes not from poor nations, but from the Russian and American stockpiles of nuclear missiles
C)Thus, the great powers should abandon their hypocrisy and stop interfering in the affairs of other nations
D)It is thus no ordinary person’s best interest that the world see any decrease in the nuclear threat
E)Besides, nuclear bombs are good for no one. and they should all be dismantled straight-away
45-……………. . Cave paintings dating back 20,000 years depict forms of ritual dance. Every community has developed a style of tribal or folk dancing, closely related to music, usually of a magical or religious nature. The hypnotic power of certain types of dancing has been demonstrated, among others, by the Dervishes.
A)Cave paintings are one of our best sources of historical knowledge
B)Every religion expresses itself in a variety of different art forms
C)There is no doubt that dance involves a type of therapeutic power
D)Dancing is probably the oldest of all forms of human expressions
E)All cultures have managed to develop their own musical instruments
46-The Sues Canal represents the culmination of centuries of effort to enhance trade and expand the empires of Egypt by connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas. …………, but its significance came from the fact that it was the only one to bypass the Nile as a means of connecting the two seas and to excavate across the Isthmus of Suez to provide a major shipping route between Europe and Asia.
A)At one stage, following by an outbreak of cholera, all the workers ran away
B)The Israelis entrenched themselves along the eastern bank of the canal
C)By this time the canal was full of sunken ships and sea traffic was paralysed
D)Two small fleets, one originating in Port Said and the other in Suez, met in Ismailia
E)The modem canal was by no means the first project of its kind
47-Orantgutans are like babies: playful, wide-eyed, and trusting. Genetically, the “men of the forest” as their name means in Malay, resemble humans more than any other animal on the Earth. ………. . Yet a combination of natural disasters and merciless hunting by humans now threatens this inoffensive near relative of ours.
A)Even today. not everyone has accepted Darwin’s theories on evolution
B)Most people have only seen them in zoos
C)Some people would say that the, chimpanzee is actually closer to human beings
D)They stand next to us on the tree of life
E)A gorilla named Koko is famous for having learnt to communicate with humans using sign-language
48-The enduring Roman influence is reflected in contemporary language, literature, legal codes, government, architecture, medicine, sports. etc. ………… . Consider language for example. Fewer and fewer people today claim to know much Latin. And yet, go back to the first sentence of this paragraph. If we removed all the words drawn directly from Latin, that sentence would read: “The”.
A)Ancient Greeks also had an enduring influence on Western civilisation
B)The great civilisations of India and China are older, but the West came into contact with them later
C)In the 3rd century AD, the capital of the Roman Empire moved from Rome to Constantinople
D)’The” is the most commonly used word in the English language
E)Much of it is so deeply embedded that we scarcely notice our debt to ancient Rome
49-John Lennon was murdered just before 11p.m. on the 8th December, 1980; outside the apartment building where he lived in New York City. He had just got out of a car and was walking toward the entrance when a voice called to him. When he turned around, he was shot five times, The killer, was 2-year~d Mark Chapman from Hawaii. ……… . It is said that he even believed that he was John Lennon.
A)He was a fan of Lennon, and had tried to imitate him in many ways
B)Lennon’s music, though less consistent than when he was with the Beatles, continued to be popular
C)New York is one of the most dangerous cities in the world
D)It is remarkable how many famous people have been murdered in the United States
E)The Beatles had split up more than ten years before
50-…………. . Within a year, 100,000 people, only 8,000 of whom were women, had reached California. Homes, ~a and stores throughout the United States were abandoned as everyone rushed to California. By 1850, more than 50
ships were anchored in San Froncisco Bay, but many had been deserted by gold-hungry sailors. A few people became fabulously rich, but most left as poor as they came.
A)Gold is the most precious of metals, and throughout history people have longed for it
B)In 1848, gold was discovered in Sutter’s Mill, near San Francisco, and the first great gold rush began
C)At the time of the California Gold Rush, the easiest way to reach San Francisco from the East Coast was by ship
D)San Francisco’s football team is named after the people who came in 1849 hoping to find gold and strike it rich: ‘The 49ers”
E)Every year thousands of Mexicans illegally cross the border from Mexico into southern California looking for work.
51-……………… . In addition to teaching the correct techniques, a qualified instructor will indoctrinate the beginner in the importance of skiing safely. If the skier is taught how to ski under control at all times and to follow the generally accepted rules of safety, the risk of causing injury to himself or to other skiers is greatly reduced.
A)Because short skis are easier to handle, they are often used, by beginners, while experienced skiers prefer longer ones
B)Chair lifts and other devices that transport skiers uphill have removed the need for tiring, time-consuming climbing
C)Each year thousands of beginners rush to hundreds of organised ski areas
D)In its simplest form, skiing is sliding down a snow-covered slope on a pair of long, slim runners called skis
E)The best way for a beginner to learn how to ski is to take lessons from a certified ski instructor
52-In strict terms, performing arts are those art forms, primarily theatre, dance and music, that result in a performance. ………, from classical opera and serious theatre to live variety entertainment, popular improvised theatre in the streets, and even rock concerts and professional wrestling.
A)Decorative arts, on the other hard, are art forms that have a primarily decorative rather than expressive or emotional purpose
B)The individual performing artist has always struggled to survive
C)Under their heading, however, can be placed an enormous number of forms and variations
D)Several playwrights of the late 19th and early 20th centuries prepared the way for modern realistic drama
E)Cabarets are small performance spaces in clubs and restaurants where solo artists perform
53-The olive is a small tree with narrow greyish –green leaves, cultivated from early times in the Mediterranean region. ………. , which is highly valued by many nutritionists today because of its benefits for health However, olives are also pickled for eating. Black olives are ripe, but green ones are pickled unripe, and treated in order to destroy their bitterness.
A)Olives do not taste at all nice when eaten fresh from the tree
B)These trees have been grown for their shade in many regions
C)The fruit of the olive tree is edible, once it has been pickled
D)These trees were cultivated originally for their lush crops
E)The most important product extracted from its fruit is the oil
54-……….. . The reason for this may be found in the large herds of reindeer that they breed, as the subsequent need for pasture In the Arctic area has necessitated constant movement. Even today, settlements are rarely permanent, although they are being increasingly affected by the Swedes and Finns among whom they live.
A)One may be surprised to learn that there are many Arctic animals
B)Life in the Arctic region does not offer much variety to the locals
C)Research shows that people living in the Arctic area are very fit
D)The inhabitants of Lapland are traditionally a nomadic people
E)Alcoholism is becoming an increasing problem in the Arctic area
55-In most modern industrial countries, including Japan, women are much less than half as likely to commit suicide. ………? Not at all. Psychiatric professionals are agreed that women are actually more likely to experience depression than men. In fact, statistics show that more women than men are treated for depression each year in hospitals.
A)Do the people involved in the field of mental health know the reason for this
B)Does this mean that women are happier and less prone to depression than men
C)Is this because men are less likely to express their feelings than women
D)What is it that causes this difference between men and women in mental health
E)Is the situation the same among the women of less industrialised countries
56-The average child will crawl at eight to ten months, walk alone at twelve to sixteen months and say a few words by the fifteenth month. ……… . Many children walk before they are a year old, and say words before they are fifteen months, and there are examples that first children speak earlier than subsequent children, and girls may speak sooner than boys.
A)However, individuals vary considerably
B)Children usually start school at age six
C)Size is determined by a variety of factors, though
D)The wisdom teeth appear in the late teens
E)And, surprisingly, the same development applies to children of all races
57-The speed of sound is generally placed at 1088 fret per second at sea level at 32F. However, it varies at other temperatures and in different media. …………. . Thus, if in air it travels a mile in 5 seconds, it does a mile under water in 1 second, and through iron in half a second.
A)When a plane breaks the sound barrier, it means it’s flying faster than sound
B)The speed of sound can be measured using modern equipment
C)Sound travels faster in water than in air, and even faster in iron
D)We use the prefix Mach in order to describe supersonic speed
E)Any sound which is over 120 decibels is painful to the ear
58-…….. . The audience stood or sat in galleries on three sides of the stage, which was left open to the sky for the sake of light, as performances generally began at 2 p.m. At the back of the stage were the dressing rooms, and a small gallery. These theatres were generally owned by businessmen, or by companies of actors like that of Shakespeare.
A)Many modern theatres are breaking away from traditional theatre styles
B)One of the finest examples of a Renaissance theatre is the Teatro Olimpico
C)Elizabethan times brought the first permanent public theatres to England
D)Al present, there are approximately forty-eight major theatres in operation in London
E)The Globe, where Shakepeare’s plays were first performed has been restored
59-There is a new5km bridge in Bangladesh, where everyone who crosses in a vehicle must pay a toll. In order to avoid paying, most bus passengers simply get off their buses and walk across. The man who has come up with the most novel solution to the toll problem is an enterprising cycle rickshaw driver. He paid his toll once, then stayed on the bridge, taking people across the river without ever paying the toll again. ………. . Once a group of politicians were so angry on being asked to pay the toll that they simply smashed the electronic equipment.
A)The bridge is so important because it connects the best agricultural land in the country with the capital, Dhaka
B)Cycle rickshaws are one of the most common forms, of public transport in Bangladesh
C)The advanced electronic technology used on the bridge may seem out of place in the rural nature of the surrounding countryside
D)The bridge has become an important political issue in Bangladesh
E)But it is not only the poor who object to paying the toll
60-The first known people of the many to settle the island of Malta were the Phoenicians, who reached it in about the 9th century B.C. …………….. . In succession, the island was then occupied by the Arabs, the Knights Hospitaler, the French, and most recently, the British. All of them have left their mark on the island, reflected in its culture, language and architecture.
A)Malta occupies a strategic location between Italy and North Africa
B)They were followed by the Romans
C)Its capital, Valetta, was important in Thomas Pynchon’s cult novel ‘V’
D)The Phoenicians, of course, came from the area called Lebanon today
E)Though Malta is a small island, it is far more important than its sire would lead us to believe
61-Spice, the most desired commodity of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, was the driving force of merchant seafaring. Portugal started trading with China in 1557, and spread its trade across Southeast Asia and India, where the greatest variety of spices were to be found. ………….. . The ships of these companies were called “East Indiamen” and were the biggest and best merchant ships for over two centuries.
A)Today, with modern transport, spices are easily obtainable and inexpensive
B)The British Navy became the strongest in the world from the time of the Napoleonic Wars
C)A series of naval wars were fought between Britain and Holland in the 17th century
D)The British East India Company was founded in 1600, and the Dutch East India Company in 1602
E)The development of the steam engine in ‘the 19th century meant that tea could be shipped to Europe while it was still flesh
62-Most societies think that men are naturally suited to perform the most strenuous labour. ………… . For example, there was a kingdom in West Africa called Dahome, which used women as bodyguards and soldiers because they were believed to be especially fierce fighters. The Tasmanians, similarly, felt that women were as suited as men to the most dangerous of hunting tasks.
A)This belief has persisted, almost unchanged, to the present day
B)”Strenuous” labour usually meant farming or hunting
C)This has not always been a universally held belief, however
D)This, is probably why, throughout history, male prisoners have been killed, while women and children were sold as slaves
E)In some societies, inheritance is through the male line, while in others it is through the female line
63-Of all possible eating patterns, skipping breakfast and eating a big lunch is the worst. ………. . Your blood sugar and stored carbohydrates are low. The morning meal replaces the calories and nutrients you need to get you through the day. Calories are burnt up more quickly in the morning than at any other time of the day. Studies of school children have found that those who eat breakfast do better in school.
A)It’s said by some that the best meal in England is breakfast and that it should be served three times a day
B)Breakfast is important because when you wake up in the morning, you have not eaten for eight to ten hours
C)A big lunch usually makes you sleepy, and thus affects your performance’ negatively
D)Dinner is usually the main meal because the whole fancy, can relax together and talk about their day
E)On the other hand, many people complain that they don’t have time for breakfast
64-………….. . Of course, it is only to be expected that they might over-react to their new freedoom, and it is probably better that their parents are not around to observe their behaviour. Normally, however, by their final year they’ll have got over the fascination of living without parental control and learnt to conduct themselves in a mature and responsible manner. It is therefore arguable that the experience of university life is as important as the actual studies.
A)When young people go to university, it is often the first time they have lived away from home
B)Young people are inherently irresponsible and need to be supervised until they are ready to be parents themselves
C)Students often feel that, as educated people, they have a more valid point of view on society and its problems than do their elders
D)Many university students have part-time jobs, and this gives them a certain financial independence
E)One objection to the grant system in Britain is that it gives privileged young people what amounts to a three-year holiday
65-Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte were the novelist daughters of a country parson. Charlotte wrote Jane Eyre. Emily’s most famous novel was Wuthering Heights, which she first published under the name Ellis Bell. ………., athough she was a talented writer too.
A)We don’t know where they got their talent from
B)Anne did not achieve the fame of her two sisters
C)It is true that she never had any novels published
D)Charlotte was the oldest of the three sisters
E)Anne wrote several novels under her own name
66-For a number of years, radio telescopes have been trying to pick up signals from outer space, so far without success. There are, however, millions of possible radio frequencies, and there is no reason why a completely alien civilisation should not use a different type of communication, such as X-rays, or even a type of wave we have not yet discovered. ………… . For example, if we made contact with beings 300-light years away – relatively close as space distances go – by the time we had sent an answer and received their response, the earth would be 600 years older.
A)The most famous radio telescope of all is at Jodrel Bank in England
B)We may have discovered only a few of countless types of waves that could be used in this way
C)And then there is the problem of how to carry out contact over such vast distances
D)According to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, it is impossible to travel faster than the speed of light
E)Science fiction writers have been speculating over the nature of alien beings for decades
67-In the United States, a large number of university students suffer from “student shock”: severe depression stemming from inability to cope with student life. Universities have been trying a number of ways to help students cope with the pressures they face. Many universities are upgrading their psychological counselling centres. Additional staff are being hired, and experts are doing research to learn more about the psychological problems of university students. …………… . Finally, stress management workshops have now become common on university campuses.
A)A remarkable number of students become so depressed that they commit suicide
B)With such competition for good jobs, students are more nervous over good grades than ever before
C)The end of a relationship can be a large contributing factor to student shock
D)Also, older and more successful students are being trained to counsel their younger peers
E)In addition, some students should get proper jobs and learn what life is really like
68-It was in 1961 that John F. Kennedy, then President of the United States, gave the “go ahead” for his country to make the maximum effort to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. ………….. . They were Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. A third astronaut, Michael Collins, remained aboard the command module, which continued to orbit the moon.
A)The launch of Sputnik in 1957 alerted Americans to the fact that the Soviets were well ahead in some scientific fields
B)Thus the first true men on the moon landed in its sea of tranquillity on 21st July, 1969
C)The first Americans to orbit the earth went in tiny cramped capsules, which look very primitive today
D)People struggling to feed themselves in developing countries might have wondered what the point of it all was
E)Tom Wolfe’s book, The Right Stuff, documents the experiences of the first American astronauts
69-……….. . Known as fossil fuels, they took about 250 million years to form, and although new coal and oil are being formed in parts of the world, this happens very slowly, so the coal and oil now being extracted at an extremely fast rate are not being replaced. This means that alternative energy sources must be found and developed.
A)In many parts of the world it Is still very difficult to keep warm in the winter
B)Coal production was reduced in Britain because of the life-threatening smogs of the 1950s
C)When we bum coal, we are actually reproducing sunlight which nurtured plants and animals millions of years ago
D)Before its dangers were fully realised, nuclear power was once thought to be the key to future power supplies
E)Man’s principal energy supplies coal and oil are unable to reproduce themselves
70-Nine rotten teeth from such notable mouths as Queen Victoria, Florence Nightingale and Princes Mary are to be sold at auction. The blackened teeth are thought to have been collected by a society dentist and acquired at the turn of the century by an antique dealer. ……………… . One reveals that Queen Victoria’s 23rd tooth was removed when she was 12 years old in 1832. The collection features four of her teeth and two of her mother’s.
A)Each tooth is accompanied by a tiny hand-written note
B)It is not known how much he might have paid for them
C)Why anyone would want to buy hundred-year-old rotten teeth has not been explained.
D)The history of dentistry reveals some strange facts
E)The question arises of whether it is entirely ethical or not to collect such artefacts
71-The beaver is an aquatic mammal with a wide, scaly, paddle-like tail and webbed feet that it uses for
swimming. …………… . They build these dams to protect themselves from such animals as the coyote and the cougar. Their food consists mainly of the bark of the willow, poplar and other trees, but they also eat flowers, grasses and roots.
A)Beavers are often found in areas where people have constructed dams
B)The European beaver lives, like the water-rat, in the banks of streams
C)The American beaver makes dams of logs and branches, plastered with mud
D)In America, their homes have been known to cause flooding in wet areas
E)Beavers are known for their building ability and are thus called nature’s engineers
72-President is the title given to the head of state or chief executive in most republics…………. . In others,
such as in Turkey, he merely represents his country, as does the monarch in a constitutional monarchy. In other cases again, such as in the American system, the president will exercise real political power as defined by a constitution.
A)Most often, presidents come into power through violent coups
B)No president may hold office for more than eight consecutive years
C)In some cases, the president may be a virtual dictator
D)The same title is also used for the top officials in some companies
E)In various political systems, the power of presidents varies considerably
73-During the Second World War, the London tube became an air-raid shelter. Heavy raids began on 7 September 1940, Of course, there was mass panic as people rushed to find shelter, eventually finding the tube stations ideal refugee. …………….. . Soon, all seventy-nine deep tube stations were officially designed as air-raid shelters, and by the end of the following mouth, an average of 138.000 people sheltered in the system.
A)The bombing completely destroyed the Underground during the next four and a half years of the war
B)Thus, people entered and refused to leave the underground until the raids ceased
C)Unlike the London Underground, the New York City Subway was never used for such a purpose
D)By the end of the month the city government had instituted a special programme to stop this activity
E)The raids ceased completely within a week, when the Germans saw how ineffective they had become
74-When St Augustine arrived in Milan, he observed that the church did not fast on Saturday, as did the Church in Rome. He consulted St Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, who replied: “when I am in Rome. I fast on Saturday. “When I am in Milan I do not. ……………. .” Over time, this comment has become the now famous form: “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”
A)Since you are Roman, you must fast in Milan
B)Go and tell the people here that they should be fasting
C)So, I don’t really care what you choose to do
D)if you want to fast, you must return to Rome
E)Follow the custom of the Church where you are
75-Through centuries of internal strife, and successions of warrior kingdoms, several ancient peoples fused into a unified ——– identity, as in the case of Scots. …………; Norsemen also settled in these lands, mixing with the native Celts and Picts. Though English is the main language today, traditional Gaelic is still understood by many Scots.
A)The land was uninhabited for thousands of years after the fall of Rome
B)Swedish people, however, came from Germanic tribes migrating from the south
C)While they all lived together, the groups never actually mixed
D)The original Scots migrated to the Celtic lands before the 10th century
E)The recorded history of Scotland begins in the 1st century AD, when the Romans invaded Britain
76-Denim, the material that jeans are made of originally referred to a type of fabric called serge. This was first manufactured in Nimes, a town in Southern France. ………….., which means ‘serge from Nimes’, but was eventually condensed and shortened to denim.
A)Afterwards, its popularity grew and it spread through Europe
B)Today, the city of Nimes still makes its now famous cloth
C)The famous Levi Strauss used this material to make the first jeans
D)To distinguish it from a rival product from Nice, also in France.
E)The name of the cloth first reflected its origin, ‘serge de Nimes’
77-Postcard collectors should gain some knowledge of the subject before they spend money on the first old batch they see. Of the millions of cards issued before 1914, only about 5% are worth anything Particular manufacturers and artists are in demand. ………… , and so do cards illustrated with art nouveau, sports team pictures and stamps.
A)Collectors pay high prices for romantic cards with hearts and flowers
B)Cards showing the U.S. presidents’ portraits are very valuable
C)The most popular ,cards are those printed in France in about 1900
D)Advertising cards command good prices, especially Coca-Cola’s
E)A card with an interesting message on it will sell for a high price
78-………… . Beyond these stretched vast deserts. Thus, although it was several hundred miles in length, Egypt was only a few miles in breadth. The prosperity of the land depended, naturally, upon the Nile. Along it, ships brought trade to the towns; from it the villagers obtained water, as they still do.
A)The land of ancient Egypt had one of the strangest shapes known to recorded history
B)The people of ancient Egypt lived near the Nile, because it provided much needed water
C)Ancient Egypt consisted of two narrow strips of fertile land, one on each side of the Nile
D)Ancient Egypt was a very large country, although only a small portion of it was habitable
E)Historians agree that the settlement of the Nile valley took a long time, perhaps 2,000 years
79-One of the most important of literature writers have used to express their ideas
Find the sentence for the blank that covers the meaning