Lesson 5. reporter speech/ reporting verbs/ reporting questions‏(İngilizce Dersler 5)

lesson 5. reporter speech/ reporting verbs/ reporting questions‏
When we use reporter speech , changes may have to be made to verb tenses, pronoums and certain words indicating place and time.
Present Simple Present Continuous
I work in an office He said he worked in an office
Present Continuos Past Continuos
We’re going away on holiday She said they were going away
on holiday
Present Perfect Past Perfect
I’ve know her for a long time. He said he’d known her for a long time.
Present Perfect Continuos Past Perfect Continuos
He’s been playing tennis, she said She said he’d been playing
Past Simple Past Perfect
I saw Nigel in town , he said He said that he had seen Nigel
in Town
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
We’re trying to help him , she said She said they had been trying
to help him
The modal verbs will, must , and can , change to would, had to, might and could.
No changes:
Past Perfect
He had never spoken about it before, she said
She said he had never spoken about him before.
Modal Verbs: Would, might , could, should ought to .
You should go to the doctor’s he said
He said I should go to the doctor’s
If the statement being reported is still true.
I like fish , she said
She said she likes fish
If the reporting verbs is in present
It’s 40º in Athens at the moment
Jeremy say it’s 40º in Athens at the moment
Pronoums in direct speech may have to change when we use reported speech.
I’ll see you soon said Peter
Peter said he would see me soon
The following changes may also need to be made to words indicating place and time.
Now Then
Today That day
This morning That morning
Tomorrow The next/ following day
Next week The next/ following week
Yesterday The day before/ the previous day
Two days ago Two days before/ earlier
Last Week The week before/ the previous week
Here There
Come Go
This, that, these and those may change to the.
That book you lent me is really boring, he said
He said the book I had lent him was really boring
Tell is used with a direct object
He told me (that) he was getting married
Say and Explain are used without a direct object
She said (that) she was ill (not she said me)
They can however be used with an indirect object
I explained to them (that) I’d left my passport at home (not I explained them)
Some reporting verbs can be used with an infinitive.
Verb+ object / pronoum + infinitive with to
Advise, ask, encourage, invite, order, persuade, recommend, remind, tell, urge, warn.
Don’t forget to phone Jim, he told her
He remind her to phone Jim
Verb+ infinitive without to
Offer, promise, refuse, threaten.
I’ll help you mend the car if you like
He offered to help me mend the car
The following patterns can be used after both recommend and suggest.
He recommend/ Suggest (that) I (should) eat less sugar
She recomended/Suggested joining a youth club
The infinitive with to can only be used after recommend.
When we report questions we make the same changes to verb tenses, pronoums, and words indicating place and time as we do when we report statements. The following changes are also made:
Auxilary verbs:
Auxilary verbs, do, does, and did are omited
Word order:
Is the same as that of a statement
Questions marks are not used
Yes/ No question:
If there is no question word ( what, where, who,etc) in the direct question we use if or whether.
Does she smoke?
He asked if/ whether she smoked
a) Requests (Ask+object+ infintive with to )
Can you help me , please?
He asked me to help me
b) Questions
Can you ride a horse?
She asked if I could ride a horse
a) Command ( Tell+object+ infinitive with to)
Put your coat on
She told him to put his coat on
b) Statement
I can’t find my coat
He told her (that) he couldn’t find his coat
Kaynak: www.english.blogcu.com

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