Today we will learn modal verb present and past
I will send you exercices, and at the end a short review of modal verbs that you can consult.
AbIlIty – Can and be able to .
Can like all modal verbs cannot be used in an infinitive or continuous form. We use be able to in situation where we need this forms. (Bütün modal verb’ler gibi mastar ve sürekli form burada da kullanılamaz. Bu durumda “be able to” yapısı kullanılır.)
Ex. I ‘d like to be able to swim . Not being able to swim is annoying
that can , is only in present and in past ( could ), if you can’t use can in other forms, you have to use be able . you can’t say you will can see the mountains.
I have to use “to” or not ?
Yes. You have to use
Ex. I will be able to run
Certainty and uncertainty- Must and Can’t
These words have a meaning relating to certainty . They’re used to make deductions . This is when we’re sure or almost sure about something because it is logical. This usage is specially common with the verb BE
Ex. You must be tired after your long journey ( I’m sure you’re)
That Can’t be Sue. She’s in Brazil (I’m sure it’s not possible)
May/Might and Could
This words allow express uncertainty or possibility . Could is not used with Not in this context.
Ex. I might go out. I don’t know.
This possibility or permission ?
Means perhaps , maybe .
should and ought to
These words are both used for obligation, but they have also the meaning related to certainty They’re used when we expect that something will happen .
Ex. Brenda Should be home by now (I expect that she is)
Must and Have to .
Must is used when the speaker personally feels something is important and Have to, is used when the situation make something necessary.
Ex. You must start working harder
You have to turn left here (is the law)
MUSN’T AND DON’T HAVE TO
Musn’t describes something wich is prohibited, Don’t have to describes something wich is not necessary .
Ex. You mustn’t leave now (is not allowed)
You don’t have to leave now ( it’s not necesary, you have a choice )
SHOULD AND OUGHT TO
These words have the same meaning , They’re used to say what is the bes thing to do,They can be used to give some advice an opinion, instrucctions , etc
We should do something different for our holidays this year
I think you should see a doctor. You ought not to smoke if you ‘re pregnant.
This phrase gives strong advice about how to stop something going wrong. It can refer present or future.
Ex. I think you had better leave now. You had better not drive .
MODAL VERB PAST
Ability- Could and Was able to
To talk about general past ability we use could .
EX. When I was youngI could run very fast
To talk about one specific past action we use was able to
This is generaly or for a time ?
For a time, specific you have to use was able to
Like this example. Luckily Mary was able to help us .
MUST HAVE AND CAN’T HAVE
These are used to make logical deductions about past actions.
Ex. I must have left my wallet in the car (I’m sure I did )
Jim can’t have noticed you (I’m sure he didn’t )
MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE AND COULD HAVE
These express possibility or uncertainty about past actions
Jean Might have missed the train (perhaps she did )
He may not have recived the letter (perhaps he didn’t )
You could have been killed (it was a possiblity )
Might and may are so similar, maybe first is may and after is might and could is a possibilty .
Might is when is lower probability .
WAS / WERE TO HAVE
This describes something wich was suposed to happen, but didn’t it is formal in use.
He was to have left yesterday – this means, he was supposed to leave but he didn’t )
MODAL PAST VERB- IN OBLIGATION
Must has not past form. So we used had to
Ex. Sorry I’m late . I had to take the children to school
The question form is Did you have to ? – Did you have to work yesterday ?
SHOULD HAVE/ OUGHT TO HAVE
These express the feeling that a mistake was made. There is a criticism.
Ex. I should have posted this letter yesterday. (I didn’t do the right thing)
You shouldn’t have told me the answer (you were wrong to do so )
NEEDN’T AND DIDN’T HAVE TO
This is past necessity
needn’t have + past partIcIple
Is used to talk about an action wich is unnecesary
Ex. I needn’t have (done) something
This means I did something but now I know that it was not necessary
ex. I needn’t have prepared so much food for the party ( and I prepared a lot)
DIdn’t need to + InfInItIve
Is used to talk about an action
I didn’t need to..- means it was not necessary for me to do , and I knew this at the time, and I didn’t
Ex. I didn’t need to get up earlier- so I didn’t