Spanish-English lesson 2- DETERMINERS – Inglés Lección 2 – DETERMINERS

The determiner is an indispensable element in the Noun Phrase,more if this acts as a subject :
La muñeca está sobre la cama. The doll is on the bed
Tus llaves están sobre la mesa. Your keys are on the table
The determiner can be omitted in this cases :
With proper nouns :
Jorge trabaja cada dia . Georges works every day
París es la capital de Francia. Paris is the capital of France
With common nouns:
when they appear as titles of books, pieces of music, as newspapers headlines, etc.
In prepositional phrases :
Volar en avion. To fly by plane
Encontrar algo por casualidad. To come across something by chance
Where the noun is used as a complement to the subject, fore exemple when describes the profession of someone
Ana es enfermera del hospital – Ann is a hospital nurse
When nouns are used in a figurative sense , such proverbs.
Teh determiner is generally positioned before the noun , and agrees with its noun in number and gender.
La muñeca – the doll , las muñecas- the dolls
Esta silla- this chair- estas sillas- these chairs
Types of determiners :
Indefinite adjectives
Algún, alguna, algunos, algunas- some /any/ a few
Algún and alguna are always used before the noun.
Hay algún museo en la ciudad ? Is there any museum in the city ?
Esta tienda tiene algunos libros que me gustan. This shop has some books that I like
Algún dia iré a Escocia. Some day , I ‘ll go to Scotland
Cualquier- Any

Cualquier persona es mejor que tu. – Any person is better than you
beberemos cualquier cosa- We will drink any thing
Cualquiera de nosotros es mejor que tú. Any of us is better than you
Also exist the form cualquiera that is when is used after the noun , means unimportance.
No se trata de un libro cualquiera- It’s not just any book
Cierto dia fuistes a trabajar- A certain day you went to work
When you put this word after the noun, like a qualifying adjective, Cierto/as means “true”
Un/a- one
Un dia ire a trabajar. One day I will go to work
El otro dia, me compré una bicicleta. The other day I bought a bike
Unos/unas- some
Compré unos libros pero no los leí- I bought some books, bud I didn’t look at them
It can be used for emphasis:
Te lo tendre que repetir otra vez, ten cuidado porque són unos mentirosos. – I will have to tell you again, be careful because there are a liars
It can use to mean an indefinite small quantitiy
Estudiaremos unas pocas lecciones. – We will study a few lessons
It can be used as adverbial sense
In this situation , take the place of “aproximadamente”
Sólo he estudiado dos lecciones. I ‘ve only studied two lessons
Otros/a/os/as – another / some other
Otros/a/os /as Are never used with the indefinide article, However they may be used in combination with the following :
With numerals : Ponnos otras dos copas- Give us two more glasses
With demonstratives : Prefiero este otro libro- I prefere this other book
With quantitives : Tiene otras muchas cosas para vender. He has many other things to sell
Also you can use to say :
Otra vez – again
El otro día- the other day
When you use the word as and adjective ,otro takes on the meaning of “different”
Canta otra canción- Sing another song
Varios/varias- several
He enviado ya varias postales . I’ve already send several postcards
Also means various or a variety of in cases like that :
He recibido postales varias. I have received a variety of postcards
Bastante/bastantes- quiet a lot, a fair amount
Perdimos bastante tiempo. We lost a fair amount of time
He estado en Francia bastantes veces. I’ve been to France on quiet a lot occasions
Also bastante means enough
No disponemos de tiempo bastante- We do not have enough time
Más- More ,menos- less
Cantaron más canciones. They sang more songs
Tienen menos dias para estudiar. They have less days to study
Mas and menos can also use as adverbs
bebimos más pero disfrutamos menos. We drank more but enjoyed less
Todo- all , ningún – none
These make reference to totally of something , either positevely or negatively.
They have both masculine and femenine forms , wich agree with the noun to wich they are refering:
No he visto a ninguna persona en la calle- I have not see any person in the street
Todos los niños deben jugar mucho All childs should play a lot
Todo is generally used in the singular with an article .
Trabajó todo el día. He worked all day
Todo /a can be combined with .
the definitite article : que, or de
Todos los de ayer estaban nuevos. All yesterday’s were new
Todo el que trabaja gana dinero. All those who work, earn money
Possesive and demonstratives :
Me dió todos sus libros. She gave me all their books
No cuentes todas esas barbaridades. Don’t tell me all that nonsense
Personal pronouns :
Todos vosotros pasareis el examen . You will all pass the exam
Expressions with “todo”
ante todo : first of all
a todo esto: meanwhile
con todo: despiste
asi y todo : despite
del todo: completely
de todo : everything
Numbers in spanish :
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